Petrochemistry

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Basics

  • Chemistry that deals with crude oil (often called petrolium, hence the prefix) / Bio-Crude / Pyrolysis Oil
  • Main use is for refined fuels such as:
    • Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) (often propane, butane, or various hydrocarbons used as "propellants" in aerosol cans etc (perhaps refrigerants too) )
    • Butane
    • Gasoline/Petrol
    • Jet fuel
    • Kerosene
    • Fuel oil (Most likely will be cracked to be the others, but may have use as lubricating oils, or could be used in a waste oil burner)
    • Diesel fuel
    • This all varies depending on the contents of the feedstock, the conversion/reaction processes, and if anything "vents off" in transit (especially the more volitile ones)
  • The main use of non-distilling / fuel drying petrochemistry would be in the "Cracking" of heavier fractions like fuel oil, and below into more useful (and less polluting) lighter fractions (double check that they are less polluting, definetly easier to use)
  • Traditionally, and in almost all literature/discussion, the word "petrochemistry" refers to non-renewable feedstock
  • Perhaps make all the work and pages "Bio-Petrochemistry" to highlight this difference?
  • Would be intresting to bring various chemical engineers and whatnot to the "light side" ie drill water wells/salt domes for non-fossil fuel oil use, or make bio-refineries
    • Some may even be doing this already, need to look into it

Side note on non florinated/chlorinated refrigerants

  • Many LPGs can be used as refrigerants
  • Not ozone killing like CFCs, and not AS bad as others for greenhouse effect per m^3
  • Main risk is fire/explosion but this can be prevented via proper design
  • Wikipedia Snippet from Refrigerant page:
    • "Compared to halogenated refrigerants, hydrocarbons like isobutane (R-600a) and propane (R-290) offer several advantages: low cost and widely available, zero ozone depletion potential and very low global warming potential. They also have good energy efficiency, but are flammable and can form an explosive mixture with air if a leak occurs. Despite the flammability, they are increasingly used in domestic refrigerators. EU and US regulations set maximum charges of 57 or 150 grams of refrigerant, keeping the concentration in a standard kitchen below 20% of the lower explosive limit. The LEL can be exceeded inside the appliance, so no potential ignition sources can be present. Switches must be placed outside the refrigerated compartment or replaced by sealed versions, and only spark-free fans can be used. In 2010, about one-third of all household refrigerators and freezers manufactured globally used isobutane or an isobutane/propane blend, and this was expected to increase to 75% by 2020. "

Hazards to Watch Out For

Saftey

  • Fire
  • Explosions
  • Safety with hazardous gasses, liquids, and solid catalysts

Enviromental Issues

  • Main thing is remaining carbon neutral
  • Also if not careful all sorts of "nasties" can be produced
    • Water with trace hydrocarbon contaminants
    • NOx emmisions
    • Sulfur (in a non controlled product)
    • Etc
  • Main thing is being careful, and not looking over this issue

Internal Links

External Links