Book - Closed Loop Materials Cycles

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That centralized production is more efficient t than distributed production is a common misunderstanding. Seminal literature does not claim that centralized manufacturing necessarily produces higher output per given service/product(ref). OSE has shown initial evidence that the productivity of distrbuted mfg can be higher, as in the case of its tractor prototype (data). (Footnote: Prototype, not product)

One way that this manifests is sitting.ply by lifetime. Faulty products hlgo into the garbage, then landfill, and are sometimes recyccled.

In the os economy case, Microfactories provide service, thereby keeping products alive for many years, and potentially indefinitely if common materials are used which can be used again and again.

Staiinless steel and chrome plating are erelvant here for.unlimited lifetime.

Microfactories do repair.

The industrial grinder separates metals from plastics, and circuit boards can be taken out.

Filament is a byproduct, as most plastics are thermoplastics.

If lifetime of a device is extended by repair - lifetime can increase from 1 to 10, or 10-100 years.