Embodied Energy

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Genearal - record for time, energy, and optimization of workflow on GVCS and related projects


  • Table of common materials - [1]
  • Common building materials - [2]
  • Geopolymer - says 48% higher embodied energy than Portland? [3]


  • Wood - 8.5MJ/kg

Specific - Energy of Production

  • 14-17 kWhr are used for producing 1 kg of PLA plastic 3D printing filament! See excellent industrial ecology paper, p. S84 at [4]
  • Note that this is the same amount of energy as that required to smelt 1 kg of aluminum from aluminum oxide!