Proposal 2008 E Grand Call To Arms
Given all that was said regarding the program for building the world’s first open source village – organizing around the concept of a world class research and development facility for open source economics - here is a program of action, broken down by product. GENERAL
1. Identify grant writers who work on a contingency basis 2. Identify and contact people interested in working on any items in this proposal 1. Technical expertise is required 2. Pester others for collaboration and resources 3. Identify stakeholders and send them to the funding sites 4. Simply spread the word about a world class open source village in the making 3. Publicize this call to action on their blogs, wikis, websites, and other venues 4. Provide assistance in organizational strategy, resource development, business form, asset management, interfacing with the legal system, and other organizational issues 5. Create and manage a social enterprise website for reporting on the progress of Factor E from the outside perspective outside of our own blog. This includes eplication of its technologies, and new Open Source Ecology movement locations 6. Promote in-depth study and development of the OSE and allied organizational model to students and scholars of: organizational theory, open source economic development, flexible fabrication, and other aligned disciplines. 7. Explore effective online mechanisms for collecting voluntary donations, such as www.fundable.org, and adapt them to project funding for Factor E or allied efforts. 8. Utilize a bounty type of fundraising mechanism, also known as street performer protocol. Refer to openfarmtech.org main page for a diagram of the engineering and deployment cycle.198 1. Adapt Steet Performer Protocol199 2. Identify and recruit a project leader 3. Create a social enterprise website with funding basket 1. Drupal is a good candidate 4. Project leader manages website 5. Project leader performs due technical diligence 1. Collect designs and parameters 2. Perform economic analysis 3. Identify people who can deliver a product 6. Project leader contracts with people to deliver a product based on a donation quota being reached 1. Process is iterated until replication is feasible and production optimization is complete 7. Fundraising continues via simple donations 8. Project participants are encouraged to recruit donors 9. Motivation for donors is a specific product delivered at a promised cost 10. Project leader organizes production mechanism for delivering said product at said cost 11. Factor E Farm is available as a production facility 12. Infrastructure is build to deliver the product 13. Fabricators are brought in and trained at Factor E 14. Upon successful funding cycles, product optimization, recruitment, training, and facility building, product is ready to be delivered 9. Utilize Factor E Farm blog, Worknets, and any other allied blogs to have workdays on the 199 items on a daily basis. 10. Visit Factor E Farm as a participant 1. Join our team on a long-term basis 1. Technical, agricultural, organizational, or other skills are required 2. If you can fit the role of one of the community members, as indicated generally in the list of community roles in Appendix D, you are welcome to participate 3. Visiting scholars, researchers, and fabricators are welcome on a rolling basis starting October, 2008 11. Help refine and organize this document 1. Revise and edit this document, and provide additional references or support 2. Generate Gantt charts, project management, and project planning resources online 3. Drupal site 12. Find some other qualified person to write a 1-2 page introduction to this proposal. 13. Find editors to help refine and clarify the messages in the proposal 14. Find students at universities who are interested in further theoretical development of the open source economic development model 1. Particular need for innovative business students to study the neo-commercialization model 2. Philosophy students to study the peer-to-peer economy model 3. Good material for industrial, electrical, mechanical, and other engineering disciplines who are interesting in sticking their neck out into appropriate technology 4. Good material for computer science students, particularly the development of innovative software platforms for collaboration 5. Good material for rural sociology, as all revolutions start in the countryside
15. Electric motor-generator-controller (wheel motor type) for electric vehicle application 1. This is an enabling technology for simple, battery powered vehicles 1. Tractors, skid loaders, and electric utility vehicles are prime targets, where added weight of batteries is a benefit 2. This could be linked to university projects 16. Open source hydraulic pumps and motors 1. This is a great intrusion into a world of heavy industry, for which I know of no existing open source products 2. Simple hydraulic motor can enter the realm of appropriate technology 3. Applications include high-torque, low-speed drive: skid loaders, sawmills 4. Definine university student material 17. Open source Skid loader with grapple 1. Grapple (for handling forestry logs) and front end loader are two primary implements 2. Other implements are feasible: tree cutters, rototillers, spaders, posthole diggers, wood chippers, stump grinders, etc. 3. Articulated design, box beam DfD construction 4. Definite university student material 18. Optimization of linear Fresnel-type solar collectors. 1. Goal is <$200 for 3000 Watts of solar collection and 2000 W of steam power delivered: 10 cents per watt of energy collected 1. ~70% overall efficiency from solar income to usable heat (such as steam) 2. Integration with boundary layer turbine (25% efficient) indicates overall ~18% efficiency 1. This is 40 cents per watt based on predicted efficiencies 3. Collaborate with Florida A&M’s concentrator developer team200
19. Off-grid generators: Babington-fired steam boundary layer turbine 1. Waste vegetable oil, crankcase, and other oils are available to fuel perhaps 1 million of these units 2. Small enterprise opportunity for localization 3. Scaleable design: turbine design is essentially scaleable 4. Training, fabrication, and further developments at Factor E 20. CNC Multimachine – CNC XYZ Table grant 1. Link Multimachine and XYZ torch/table for a robust fabrication capacity 1. Sawmill parts, CEB parts, turbine, and other parts doable with a click of a button 2. Proposal may be broken into two parts: Multimachine and Torch table 1. Each is extremely valuable 2. Former Saudi funders may be interested in this 3. Include Smari’s team 4. Include Pat Delaney’s team 1. Create a design for adapting the central spindle to any engine block bore and length by using bushings and other details 2. Focus on a standard, ~13 inch industrial lathe size, approximately 2 inch spindle bore 3. Publish design and fabrication procedure 4. Procure 3 bids 1. Have spindle fabricated for pay, trade, donation, or tax deductible contribution 5. Include CandyFab 4000 team201 21. Write a grant proposal for chainsaw-driven band sawmill 1. Utilize XY table to cut out all parts, including bolt holes, at the tap of a button in a few hours 1. Only difficult part is keeping track of procedure and material loading on the XY table 2. Produce the item in the form of a kit 1. Huge localized enterprise opportunity 3. Rock bottom price via flex-fab DfD design 4. Produce toolpath files for xy-table fabrication of kits
Sell optimized kits – huge business opportunity, as this type of mill becomes affordable to casual users CEB – within 2008
22. Get other people interested in replicating the CEB machine– university students, interested groups, etc. 1. Write demonstration grants 2. Publish performance studies and data 23. Collate all existing material into an educational/documentation package for producing the CEB 1. Publish a PDF document 2. Include bill of materials 3. Transfer content to openfarmtech.org – as a know-how repository 24. Set up social enterprise website with a funding basket for collaborative funding of fabrication facility. Sam Rose202 is developing this. 1. Include a mechanism where we can point people to donate to the project based on a bounty 2. The bounty is a machine at a promised cost, and donations are allocated so that the optimized fabrication facility can be built in a timely fashion. The fabrication facility will not be completed until the resources are gathered. 3. Website should have a transparency mechanism where people can see how much resource has been collected. Live updates and progress reports should be present. 25. Start and manage a dedicated website/wiki/social platform for the open source CEB, and its evolution. 26. Upgrade to all the equipment necessary for streamlined fabrication of the CEB at Factor E: 1. MIG welder 2. Plasma cutter 3. Heavy duty drill press 4. Acetylene torch 5. Welding table – good working surface 6. Vise, various types of vise grips for holding work pieces 7. 5 inch grinder – for grinding down metal edges and welds 8. CNC XY torch table – for cutting out metal parts automatically 9. Old laptop for computer control, including necessary interface 10. Cold cut saw 11. Energy sytem- 10 kW inverter and battery bank capable of running welder and cutter 12. Tractor with front end loader and rototiller for demonstration purposes 13. Skid loader for ground preparation 14. Shop press with gauge for pressure testing 27. Write grants for the open source CEB as a social enterprise model, which can be replicated in many locations. Practical details may include: 1. Training at Factor E 2. Resource pooling to generate a fabrication facility 3. Using the CEB itself (one is built during training) to build the facility 4. Partnering with community development organizations 5. Low-cost, high quality housing opportunities 28. Perform extensive testing – up to a million bricks – to determine wear issues 1. Wear plates 2. Machine structural integrity 29. Perform finite element analysis for structural optimization, collaborate with Mike Koch (mechanical engineering student) 30. Produce refinements in details, material choices and sourcing, adaptations to different parts of the world. 31. Document fabrication process carefully 32. Produce a protocol for brick structural strength testing
TURBINE, BABINGTON BURNER, SOLAR CONCENTRATOR – by end of 2008
33. Verify 25% efficiency of turbine 1. I found only 1 reference so far with hard data on turbine efficiency: Rice, Warren, Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering and Power, January 1965, pp. 28-36. 2. Follow up with Warren Rice, Arizona State University, Tempe, Ariz,. Mem. ASME, for any other references 34. Organize and update all relevant information on the openfarmtech.org website. 35. Refine turbine concept, with dimensions – approximately 12 inch diameter for 3600 rpm 1. Finalize design drawings from Dan Granett Engineering 2. Prepare bill of materials 3. Prepare fabrication procedure 4. Procure 3 bids 36. Produce design drawings for the burner 1. Prepare bill of materials. Focus on a replicable ball source. 2. Prepare fabrication procedure 3. Procure 3 bids 37. Produce design drawings for the steam generator 1. Focus on 10 hp steam output to drive a 5 kWe generator 2. Prepare bill of materials 3. Prepare fabrication procedure 4. Procure 3 bids 5. All bids by mid-January, 2008 38. Make design drawings for the burner-turbine-generator system 39. Procure lathe 40. Procure dremmel drill, small drill bits for Babingto n203 burner 41. Procure hollow, brass doorknobs for burner ball 42. Design a 10 hp flash steam generator, preferably linear 43. Procure an air compressor 44. Procure 3600 rpm generator head 45. Procure all other materials, and wait till October, 2008 to fabricate 46. Build the burner 47. Build flash steam generator 48. Contact and recruit others who have built the burner, steam generator, or boundary layer turbine, and attempt to get another one made by these people, for free or for pay. Let us know if someone is available to build the pieces, and how much it would cost. 1. Status – Tom at email@example.com contacted 2. Solar turbine – contacted Michigan group, so far no response; Amy Sun of MIT – does not respond; MIT solar turbine in Lesotho – contact them again 49. Produce a dedicated development site for the solar turbine CHP system, as defined in the pattern language 50. Identify people competent in linear fresnel-type solar concentrators 51. Produce a design for the above solar concentrators 52. Procure materials for the solar concentrators 53. Build a single 8x4 foot panel concentrator, Oct. 2008 54. Take temperature data and steam generation data for single concentrator panel 55. Analize and test economics of the OSE solar turbine CHP 56. Write grants to develop the solar turbine. Notable points: 1. System cost a fraction of the MIT solar turbine in Lesotho204 2. Turbine costs of ~$1/watt predicted 57. Develop capacity to fabricate simple, dedicated generator heads for integration with turbine 1. Find developers 2. Produce design 3. Produce prototype 4. Develop working model 58. Extend flex fab facility to produce burner/flash steam/turbine/generator package 1. Build additional facility space as needed 59. Recruit CHP system fabricator/s to Factor E Farm 60. Interest students and other groups in further development, testing, analysis, and documentation 61. Develop an education/documentation package for the CHP system
WHEEL MOTORS – by 2009
62. Identify students at universities who may be interested in designing and building wheel motors for a senior or Master’s thesis 63. Identify professionals who have experience and draw them into the open source development project 64. Produce an open source design 65. Identify 3 entities capable of fabricating an open source version 66. Set up an online project funding basket for the wheel motor 67. Fund the building of a prototype 68. Document and optimize fabrication process 69. Design a fabrication facility for Factor E Farm 70. Build facility 71. Recruit wheel motor fabricator 72. Produce wheel motors for onsite use and for sale
FLEX FAB LAB
73. Study the Opensourcemachine.com documentation, and work with the user group on developments 1. Adopt and destill available documentation to a Factor E implementation 2. Design an adaptable spindle that can be utilized in any engine block 3. Produce spindle 4. Add spindle and Multimachine sales to Factor E product line 74. Recruit someone to build a sample Multimachine. 75. Document the building process. 76. Visit Factor E Farm for two weeks and build the machine here in October, 2008. Work with us to prepare for that time. 77. Continue working with Smari’s group on the open source XYZ table. 78. Set up social enterprise funding basket: 1. Contact a number of stakeholders interested in an XY table, and raise donations based on a promised delivered product cost 2. Compete with TorchMate by how quality at lower price.
79. Upgrade diagrams of planned facility additions for 2008 to 3D, isometric drawings. 80. Procure reliable tractor with front end loader 81. Procure PTO rototiller 82. Procure a second CEB machine 1. It appears that U. Missouri, Columbia, engineering team will deliver this 83. Recruit a volunteer fabricator for 2 weeks in October to build a 4 wheel drive articulated skid loader similar to CadTrac205, and call it OSTrac. 1. Build on Babington steam turbine to do vegetable oil propulsion 2. Utilize hydraulic pump coupled directly to turbine 1. Follow the vehicle pattern language as in Figure 6? 2. Replace electrical generator with a hydraulic pump 3. Use hydraulic wheel motors 3. Prepare design drawings and procure parts 4. Set up a bounty social enterprise website for the OSTrac 84. Continue discussion with David Lienau on insulation and heating issues 85. Find supporting information about well drilling with the Rockmaster Drill 1. Identify people who bought the machine and dug wells 86. Dig a well in the center of the planned kitchen
87. Upgrade present sawmill to a chainsaw-driven band sawmill. 1. Procure Stihl chainsaw from major national chain via donation, motivating donation via production of these sawmills in the future – therefore chainsaw sales 88. Set up social enterprise funding basket 1. Landowners, organic farmer are audience 2. And woodlot owners may be empowered for side income from custom milled lumber
89. On-site: propagate our own stock and other plants: 1. Raspberries, grapes, elderberries, Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus 2. Procure various perennial vegetables 3. Graft more apples, peaches, and apricots 4. Plant out peach, apricot, chestnut, hazelnut, and others from last year 5. Graft more black and English walnuts onto existing trees (2 have survived to this point from last year) 90. Begin online/physical facility for Open Source Nursery for Continental America 1. Online presence is the virtual component of this program 2. Factor E Farm serves as a gene bank and propagation stock bank 3. Trade, exchange, and propagation program 1. Free participation based on exchange or sweat equity propagation of plant material 2. Primary focus is local exchange; remote exchange is suggested to occur essentially at-cost (shipping and packing costs) 3. Member and plant directory is available online to participants 4. Voluntary donations on website fund plant material acquisition programs or research programs for economic production techniques 4. Document propagation technique that works best for each plant 5. Work with NAFEX, Seed Savers, and other networks 6. Prepare propagation workshops for next year 1. Business model: $20-50 workshop cost, you take home 10 of your choice of apples, pears, peaches, apricots, and plums, plus 5 each of grapes, elderberries, raspberries that you propagated. 7. Business incubator for nurseries, where we provide startup plant stock 1. Explicit business plan, based on plant-by-plant analysis, needs to be drawn up 91. Mill lumber and produce raised beds for nursery and permanent growing 92. Move erosion soil to expose fertile soil 93. Do terracing for erosion control 94. Dig small ponds with backhoe and tractor 1. Stock with fish 2. Utilize for orchard irrigation 95. Prepare goat fencing 96. Plant out bamboo for stakes and structures
OTHER SPECIFIC FACILITY WORK
97. Trench the cable for the internet 98. Move 3 silos from the next door farm to our location 99. Main year for building: build kitchen, living, bathroom, workshop, root cellar, walk-in cooler, and biodiesel facility 1. End point is to absorb 12 people by October, and from that point, absorb any further participants or researchers on demand
1 Global Villages philosophy for physical villages has been articulated by Franz Nahrada: http://www.give.at/ ; http://www.worknets.org/wiki.cgi?GlobalVillages/Definition
2 Global Villages are the living communities of the future – such as productive farm/industrial operations, intentional communities, land developments, living/working productive communities (enterprise communities), coworking and living sites, and other villages of the future peer-to-peer economy. Our particular goal is to create a community as decribed under Vision.
3 See blog at http://blog.opensourceecology.org/ . Our name is explained at http://blog.opensourceecology.org/?page_id=2, and our improvement concept is similar to Factor 10 Engineering at http://10xe.com/subpages/tunnel.html
4 Second Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity, by Michael J. Piore et al., http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0465075614/ref=sib_dp_pt/103-3574943-7841431#reader-link
5 Digital fabrication: http://ng.cba.mit.edu/dist/PV.mp4
6 For an informative and entertaining video on the externalities of the mass production-consumption cycle, we recommend http://www.storyofstuff.com/ highly.
10 We are building a less capital-intensive, more heavy duty version of the Fab Lab cncept developed by Neil Gershenfeld of MIT, by addressing the capitalization barriers.
11 These include pumps, vacuum pumps, compressors, rotating disks (boundary layer turbines); low-speed, high-torque electric motors; and electric generators
12Includes CEB, Sawmill, tractor, skid loader, cars, and agricultural machinery such as a microcombine and spader.
13 These include battery chargers, DC-AC inverters, grid intertie inverters, DC-DC converters, AC-AC transformers, solar charge controllers, PWM DC motor controllers, multipole motor controllers.
14 Cast parts such as bushings, rods, pulleys, etc.
15 This is for advanced greenhouse glazing and molded plastic objects.
16 Open source CNC code is being developed by Smari McCarthy of the Iceland Fab Lab, http://smari.yaxic.org/blag/2007/11/14/the-routing-table/
17 This is a step from ‘making a living’ to ‘making a life:’ http://www.yourmoneyoryourlife.org/fom-about-why.asp
18 A particular example of waste, one with which the authors are familiar – is the CEB, where it is being demonstrated that a comparable machine may be fabricated at $1k in parts and $3k in total – whereas the competition charges $25k for their product. That represents about $22k of waste that constitutes a business opportunity for agents of the open source production method.
19 Band sawmill fabrication would be on this list, but we have switched our technology choice to a swing-blade sawmill, for which designs are not available. See Sawmill Concept under Enterprise Models in this paper.
20 See list of 16 technologies at http://openfarmtech.org/
23 See Extruder_doc.pdf at http://www.fastonline.org/CD3WD_40/CD3WD/INDEX.HTM
24 A $1T market exists for diesel fuel in the united States alone, p.25, of Biodiesel Handbook, by G. Knothe et al.
25 Key: BLT = Boundary Layer Turbine; Solar Conc = Solar Concentrators; Bab = Babington Burner; Flash = Flash Steam Generator; Motor = Wheel Motor; Gen = Generator; Elect = Electronics fabrication; Alcohol = Fuel Alcohol; Gas = Compressed Gas; CEB = Compressed Earth Block press; Extruder = Plastic Extruder; Al = Aluminum Extraction from Clays; CNC = Computer Numerical Control Multimachine; XYZ = XYZ Table; Casting = Metal Casting
26 http://www.caw.ca/whoweare/ourhistory/cawhistory/ch1/p1c1_1.html states that there are 1/2 M car jobs in the USA
27 Figures are extrapolated from the existing USA value.
28 This is the present facility for OSE. http://blog.opensourceecology.org/
30 Please see past work on the technology pattern language at http://ose.noblogs.org/post/2006/04/15/ose-yearly-plan-april-2006-april-2007
32 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8D-uhKHy7mk 33 Rice, Warren, "An Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Multiple-Disk Turbines", Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Power, Jan. 1963, pp.29- 36.
34 Granett Engineering, http://proto.dangyro.com/
36 This is a type of heat generator, and is used for efficient burning of various waste oils, from crankcase, vegetable, to hydraulic oils. This type of burner was chosen specifically because it can burn widely available and typically free (in the USA) waste oils. Note that oil fuel is merely transitional, and will be replaced with other alternatives.
37 Compare this to the CEB icon for a machine with a built-in power source, shown in http://ose.noblogs.org/post/2006/04/15/ose-yearly-plan-april-2006-april-2007 . This is one of the many simplifications and refinements to the technology base that we have produced since two years ago.
39 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery; http://www.anti-slaverysociety.addr.com/clab.htm
41 The Babington burner burns heavy oils effectively. It consists of two rotors: an air compressor for atomizing the fuel oil, and an oil pump, for delivering the fuel. The rest of the burner is a tubular structure, and power electronics for ignition.
42 One needs to step out of ignorance and consider a basic heat calculation to comprehend the large amounts of energy that may be stored in heated liquids. Consider salt solution temperature at 200C, such as that heated by solar concentrators, dropping down to 100C, or a change of 100C – which is an easy, practical scenario that does not require any high tech equipment. Approximate that the enthalpy of water is the same as that of salt solution. The amount of energy released by 2500 gallons of hot salt solution in this temperature drop is 10,000 liters x 100C x (1000g/liter) x (1 cal/gC)x(4 cal/J)=4x106 kJ. Consider that 1 kWhr = 3600 kJ ~ 4x103 kJ. Thus, 4x106 kJ = 1000 kWhr. Assume a very conservative overall conversion efficiency of 2%, and the result is 20 kWhr! That is approximately sufficient to power an average American household for a whole day (average consumption is 1 kW)
43 One may ask, if this really works, why don’t we see it around? Good question. Our conclusions are that integrated systems as such are expensive. There is no small-scale, off-the-shelf turbine available for such a purpose, and solar concentrators are expensive. We are addressing these two issues in our program. The bladeless turbine appears to be proven, but cost reduction of solar concentrators is not yet proven.
44 The Gaviotas community has such solar cooking in Colombia: http://money.cnn.com/2007/09/26/technology/village_saving_planet.biz2/index.htm
45 Design for Disassembly
46 Check out the linear concentrators: http://www.redrok.com/images/hdsolar.jpg produced by HD Solar, http://www.hdsolar.com/
48 See page 5 of this MIT Techtalk bulletin: http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2006/techtalk50-29.pdf
49 Glazing cost is $30 per 8x4 foot sheet. Structure is five 1.25 inch, 12 gauge steel frame members for $60 – where this cost may be eliminated by using lumber beams. The collector tube, and insulation compose the rest of this price.
50 Assuming a general figure of 1000W/m2 solar insolation.
51 95% collector efficiency for solar thermal energy has been demonstrated in a Master’s thesis at Florida A&M University, http://www.redrok.com/NewtonSolarSteamManuscript.pdf
52 Rice, Warren, "An Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Multiple-Disk Turbines", Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Power, Jan. 1963, pp.29- 36.
53 Study the design in Fig. 5 to calculate that material costs are approximately $200. Fabrication cost, utilizing XY-table CNC procedures, is negligible, such that overall cost is about $500, including labor.
54 http://www.celsias.com/2007/11/23/nanosolars-breakthrough-technology-solar-now-cheaper-than-coal/ . Note: even though these came out, will the consumer ever be able to buy them? Right now, only utility companies are privy to the technology.
58 Insolation maps: http://howto.altenergystore.com/Reference-Materials/Solar-Insolation-Map-USA/a44/
59 The latest on hybrid electric vehicle design is the Hypercar, http://www.rmi.org/sitepages/pid191.php
62 This requires high-torque, low speed electric motors to be developed.
63 How to Build Your Own Living Structures (see review at http://www.letsremake.info/the_books.html) , Box Beam Sourcebook (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1510/is_n83/ai_15770317)
64 See GreenForms: A building System for Sustainable Development, at http://www.cmpbs.org/publications/BuildingProductDesign/index.html
67 Look for Dan West at http://www.sare.org/2008Conference/breakouts.htm
68 Refer back to section II, Economic Base.
70 Iceland Fab Lab project, http://smari.yaxic.org/blag/2007/11/14/the-routing-table/
71 It is at the point when digital fabrication has become the standard form of manufacturing - that attention should shift to the localization of feedstocks - if human prosperity is one’s interest.
72 Multimachine, www.opensourcemachine.org , with CNC capacity added to it.
73 Parts for a multimachine cost approximately $500 for a 3/4 ton Multimachine, compared to thousands for similar commercial mill-drill-lathe capacity.
74 Downloadable manual is at http://opensourcemachine.org/node/2
80 See last 3 references.
82 see Extruder_doc.pdf at http://www.fastonline.org/CD3WD_40/CD3WD/INDEX.HTM
84 We begin with $2/kg cost of recycled polycarbonate resin crumbles. Polycarbonate has a density of ~1/2 kg per liter. One ends up with a material cost of $2 for 1 square meter of sheet with 2 millimeter thickness. This is about 10 cents per square foot.
86 Quote from Regal Plastics, KC, MO, from 2005.
88 Engineered means that structural calculations may be made, as the building blocks themselves are uniform and their properties can be measured.
89 If the particular location has lumber combined with clayey subsoil.
90 Such as RepRap
91 Such as the open source bridge: http://ronja.twibright.com/
92 Cost reduction in one component brings about cost reduction in other products that use this component, and the cost reduction is additive.
95 We adopt the 3 features of a satisfying project from http://ronja.twibright.com/satisfying.php
96 Distributed means of production was included in Thomas Jefferson’s ideals - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeffersonian_democracy
100 Computer Aided Design - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAD
102 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_of_life , http://qlrc.cgu.edu/research.htm
106 Mechanisms such as http://fundable.org/ (disadvantage: Fundable takes a 7% cut), and other co-funding options are being explored.
109 Gotten from surplus.
111 http://surpluscenter.com/item.asp?UID=2008010512293756&item=9-6702&catname=hydraulic for $156
112 Gotten from surplus.
113 Item # 905-12120 and 905-1236 at http://surpluscenter.com/
114 Item 8609K13 at http://www.mcmaster.com/
115 Outsourced, this added another $160 to the cost of metal
117 Does not include the control computer.
118 Torchmate 3, http://www.torchmate.com/overview/index2.htm
123 Not including land costs.
124 cheapest barn kit: http://diypolebarns.com/pb_kits.php , more expensive: http://www.shelter-kit.com/b_prices.html
125 Using CEB construction with on-site soils, plus site-milled lumber leaves only doors, windows, foundation, and electrical costs of building
126 This is difficult to estimate, but here we will include 200 hours of development work at $50 per hour- for producing 2 prototypes and testing prior to production runs.
127 For example, a small CNC mill is under $200 - http://www.instructables.com/id/Easy-to-Build-Desk-Top-3-Axis-CNC-Milling-Machine/
128 http://bluumax.com/ - Note - these stepper motors are half the required size, so we expect the real price to scale accordingly.
130 no pun intended
133 Professional swing-blade sawmill in operation: http://youtube.com/watch?v=xhFtrU3gIcg . Rapid cutting ergonomics are shown in this video: http://youtube.com/watch?v=oF7aYVwi7Uw .
138 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetable_oil - 11 billion liters/year in 2000 in the USA – would fuel about 5 million cars. This would run about 0.3 million 10kW turbines 24/7 for 3 months.
140 under the assumption that skilled operators of this equipment are available
141 Our goal is to start accepting Fellows for this program at the end of 2010.
143 This document, section on bill of materials for the CEB
145 This paper.
146 4 kW is energy production; with storage, such as batteries, we are capable of delivering power limited by how fast we can extract it, such as via the inverter – which is 10 kW in the case of this economic analysis.
147 http://store.altenergystore.com/Kits-and-Package-Deals/Off-Grid-Residential-Systems/249kW-Off-Grid-Residential-Packaged-System/p4426/ ; http://www.bergey.com/Products/VPkg.Hybrid.7.5.htm
148 See Solar Turbine Grid Intertie Concept section.
149 $50/sq ft is a cheap estimate for housing; http://www.b4ubuild.com/faq/faq_0002.shtml
151 For advanced, turnkey SolaRoof greenhouse systems. Personal conversation with Rick Nelson, inventor.
152 Breakthrough cost reduction via plastic extruder (10 cents/sq ft polycarbonate glazing from waste resins, see product ecology for Plastic Extruder). Greenhouse assumes self-milled lumber.
153 Ebay steal: http://cgi.ebay.com/Plastic-Extruder-Plastics-Extrusion-Machine-MPM_W0QQitemZ290187470417QQihZ019QQcategoryZ26258QQrdZ1QQssPageNameZWD1VQQtrksidZp1638.m118.l1247QQcmdZViewItem
154 Check discussion on Flexible Fabrication, Plastic Extruder
155 Check Ebay for used skid loaders.
156 Check discussion on Skid Loader product ecology
157 $1000 in propulsion system, $1000 in motors, $1000 in structure, $200 in electronics, plus other items
158 25 edible trees planted by someone, vs. self-propagated from own nursery stock
159 $5k - http://www.marketfarm.com/cfms/celli_spading_machine.cfm ; OS version is a 30 HP hydraulic motor ($250) with reciprocating mechanism for spades (see working mechanism: http://www.timmenterprises.com/machines/spader2.htm ); a walk-behind spader attachment for a small tiller ($5k) is $2k: http://www.earthtoolsbcs.com/
160 Tractor-driven, http://www.northerntool.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/product_6970_48257_48257
161 Capacity of milling, drilling, and lathing. CNC mills range from $1500 to $50k+: http://www.5bears.com/cnc01.htm
162 Torchmate 3, http://www.torchmate.com/overview/index2.htm
164 http://www.energyalternatives.ca/catalogue/Categories/152.htm , http://www.solarwindworks.com/Products/Inverters/inverters.htm
165 Would need 2 like these: http://cgi.ebay.com/24-Volt-Exide-Forklift-Battery-12-85-23_W0QQitemZ150203922533QQihZ005QQcategoryZ109505QQssPageNameZWDVWQQrdZ1QQcmdZViewItem
166 This includes primarily a PC oscilloscope and a circuit etching mill such as http://www.instructables.com/id/Easy-to-Build-Desk-Top-3-Axis-CNC-Milling-Machine/ ; the professional version of the latter is much more expensive. Learn more about circuit fabrication at http://www.thinktink.com/stack/volumes/volvi/etching.htm
167 Average well drilling cost is $10k: http://www.h2owell.com/faq.htm
168 http://www.ucsusa.org/news/press_release/average-missouri-family-may.html . Thus, the average household spends twice as much on feeding cars as feeding people: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3765/is_3_23/ai_75835521
169 Vinay Gupta (http://hexayurt.com/ ) coined this term. Read about it at http://www.bfi.org/our_programs/who_is_buckminster_fuller/design_science/spaceship_earth/the_unplugged_a_speculative_fiction_by_vinay_gupta
170 Quit school or your job and start working to make the early retirement option possible, and the world will be a better place.
171 It may be that it’s difficult to organize and align even a small group who has all this necessary skill, but that is only according to current, disciplinary (disintegrated) thinking models. In the context of real education for open source economics, one will be encouraged to learn useful skills from early on, instead of being deskilled and dumbed down in public schools. This discussion is beyond the scope of this paper and shall be revisited in the future.
172 He wrote Technics and Civilization, among others. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Mumford
176 Turbine – 2 days; burner – 1 day; steam generator – 2 days; generator – 2 days; solar collectors, 1 kWelectric, is 5 panels of 8x4 feet – or 5 days.
177 A caveman would probably laugh at the fact that a house should be a ‘dream’ for people. In other words, there should be higher aims in life than buying that dream house.
178 This should not be that difficult, if semi- or un-skilled slave labor is capable of doing assembly today.
179 Check out this fine deserty land in northern California, where a well may be dug, for under $9k for 20 acres: http://cgi.ebay.com/20-Acres-of-Northern-California-Land-near-Susanville_W0QQitemZ200181858700QQihZ010QQcategoryZ15841QQssPageNameZWDVWQQrdZ1QQcmdZViewItem
181 Compare energy content of liquid fuels (~4x107 J/l for diesel) to energy requirements of aluminum production (~5x107 J/kg from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminum ), and you get the answer.
182 http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4388280.html , http://www.periodic.lanl.gov/elements/13.html
183 Does the technology actually make life easier, or does one have to spend a significant number of hours paying for that technology? For example, if an average family spends ~$4k on car costs per year, that is approximately 400 hours of labor at $10/hour. That is 2 1/2 months of work to earn for the costs of driving a car. It is not clear whether such costs are liberatory or enslaving to a family.
184 Note that Fundable charges a 7% fee based on the sum collected.
185Smari McCarthy, Small Scale Democracy, work in progress
186 From Bill Mollison, Permacultur, http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0908228015/ref=sib_dp_pt/103-3574943-7841431#reader-link
187 See the writings of Abraham Maslow, which constitute seminal work on human evolution.
188 Maximum quality of life has been achieved in the 60’s, according to:
189 See seminal work on voluntary contract communities by Spencer MacCallum:
190 Article x in the Constitution for the United States
191 see the movie, Sicko, by Michael Moore:
195 This is counting only credit card debt. http://www.newstepsolutions.com/debt-statistics.htm and http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html
198 Direct link thereto.
201 Wired magazine reference
202 Sam Rose websites
203 Aipengineering.com link
204 Lesotho solar turbine link in MIT Tech Notes
205 CadTrac website