Thakur, D. et al. (2009) "The distributional consequences of Open Source Software: A cross-national comparison."
"If the current stylistic distinctions between open-source and commercial software persist, an open-software revolution could lead to yet another divide between haves and have-nots: those with skills and connections to make use of free software, and those who must pay high prices for increasingly dated commercial offerings." (Wallich, 1999)
Premise FLOSS development networks are limited to "mostly male, highly educated, high-income... contributors." p.1 '"the distribution of benefits [of FLOSS] is highly skewed" due to expensive human capital costs and government policy and law requirements which hinder FLOSS use in some societies.