Fuel Cells

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  • These are devices like batteries, but with oxygen and/or air as the oxydizer and a fuel (Usually gas or liquid excluding magnesium and zinc fuel cells)
  • More Efficient Converters Than ICE's and ECE's
  • Do not Produce Carbon Monoxide and other Byproducts due to lack of combustion
  • Do produce waste heat (amount varys based on design) (This heat can also be harvsted via something like a turbine (such as a steam one) or a Stirling Engine to improve efficiency further


  • 40% is generally considered as the highest efficiency of hydrogen generation to usage with PEM fuel cells and electrolyzers. [1]
    • Solution: distribute research worldwide and solve this by collaborative design.
  • PEM - 2kW/kg of weight [2]
  • PEM - $45/kw when manufactured on million-scale volume . [Ibid.]
  • Comparison to batteries - So, 145 kg total for tanks + FC system + 5 kg hydrogen, delivering an EPA estimated range of 312 miles. That compares to 540 kg for the battery pack in a Tesla Model S with a rated range of 265 miles. [Ibid.]


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