Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
This is 3D printing using the deposition of metal with MIG welders using standard MIG wire and automated computer controlled motion systems..
- This is a 3D Printing Method similar to Plastic FDM, but using Metal wire with a MIG welder.
- MIG welder is fast and cost effective for additive manufacturing of complex geometries.
- The heat source can be a welder, a laser, or an electric arc typically
Wire arc allows low feestock cost 3D metal printing of large parts. A spool of MIG wire is $1.15/lb in bulk -. This is relevant to 3D printing towers for wind turbines, see 3D Printed Windmill Tower, or 3D printing entire tractor frames.
Mig Welder Mod Calculations
Cost of shielding gas is $9/8 hour shift, about $1/hour. Deposition rates go up to 20 lb per hour. See Welding Deposition Rate. This means one spool is used up per 2 hours. $46 in metal, $2 in gas. So about 4% is shielding gas.
- Cranfield University is doing work on WAAM. Largest printed part - 6 meters long, 300lb, plain aluminum - 
- See their presentation - good insight - 
- They are making real structural parts.
- Laser + TIG setup? - https://www.addere.com/addere-i
- Electron beam and laser beam can be used - 
- Is hot wire TIG used for 3D printing?
- TIG additive - Korea - 
- Paper on cold and hot wire TIG - 
- RepRap metal printer with TIG - 
- StrongPrint TIG with wire feed - 
- Review paper on Wire Arc Additive Mfg - WAAM - "The paper concludes that WAAM is a promising alternative to traditional subtractive manufacturing for fabricating large expensive metal components. 
- Companies producing cold weld spray 3d printing - 
- Metal arc from Prodways? - . They call it forging, but it appears to be simple welding with shielding gas (SMAW)
- WAAM article -