Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
This is 3D printing using the deposition of metal with MIG welders using standard MIG wire and automated computer controlled motion systems..
- This is a 3D Printing Method similar to Plastic FDM, but using Metal wire with a MIG welder.
- MIG welder is fast and cost effective for additive manufacturing of complex geometries.
- The heat source can be a welder, a laser, or an electric arc typically
Wire arc allows low feestock cost 3D metal printing of large parts. A spool of MIG wire is $1.15/lb in bulk -. This is relevant to 3D printing towers for wind turbines, see 3D Printed Windmill Tower, or 3D printing entire tractor frames.
Mig Welder Cost Calculations
Cost of shielding gas is $9/8 hour shift, about $1/hour. Deposition rates go up to 20 lb per hour. See Welding Deposition Rate. This means one spool is used up per 2 hours. $46 in metal, $2 in gas. So about 4% is shielding gas.
- Cranfield University is doing work on WAAM. Largest printed part - 6 meters long, 300lb, plain aluminum - . See their presentation - good insight - . They are making real structural parts.
- Australian government funds $376k for WAAM - 
- 3D Printed Bridge - 
Product Development Strategy
- 1" Universal Axis + Universal Frame + Universal Controller.
- 3 prototypes in 3 months of full time work we can nail this to product-level
- considering putting such into our budget surrounding the Seed Home 2
- Steel angle frame - rapid prototype uses 3D printed corners for holding - then welded together. Essentially - 3D printed corners are a jig for frame build.
- Use counterweighted platform, and do up to 200 lb prints. Counterweight considers Weight of platform + 100 lb, so 200 lb print would have 100 lb imbalance for safety factor 2 on 200 lb hold of motors. Platform should lift a person.
- All belts and sensitive parts are fully shielded
- Water or air cooling for platform as needed, and using insulated platform
- Hire a competent engineer at $50/hr.
- Budget - $24k + materials.
- Welding Wire
- Welder Wire
- Laser + TIG setup? - https://www.addere.com/addere-i
- Electron beam and laser beam can be used - 
- Is hot wire TIG used for 3D printing?
- TIG additive - Korea - 
- Paper on cold and hot wire TIG - 
- RepRap metal printer with TIG - 
- StrongPrint TIG with wire feed - 
- Review paper on Wire Arc Additive Mfg - WAAM - "The paper concludes that WAAM is a promising alternative to traditional subtractive manufacturing for fabricating large expensive metal components. 
- Companies producing cold weld spray 3d printing - 
- Metal arc from Prodways? - . They call it forging, but it appears to be simple welding with shielding gas (GMAW)
- WAAM article -