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Torrefaction removes moisture and some volatiles from wood. Further heating leads to carbonization, which mobilizes more volatiles and changes the properties of some of the constituents (e.g. due to polymerization).

Torrefaction of biomass, e.g., wood or grain, is a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically between 200 and 320 °C. The calorific value of biomass can be greatly increased by torrefaction. Benefits are: higher energy density, more homogeneous composition, hydrophobic behavior, elimination of biological activity, improved grindability.

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