- A mild form of Biomass Pyrolysis at temperatures typically between 200 and 320 °C
- Produces mainly Tar , and Charcoal
- Can clog vents etc if not accounted for in design
- If intentional the calorific value of biomass can be greatly increased
- Benefits are:
- Higher energy density
- More homogeneous composition
- Hydrophobic behavior
- Elimination of biological activity
- Improved grindability.
- Seems to be via coating the resulting char in the tar via it not being extracted/removed in the flue gas?
- Along with the products of Hydrothermal Carbonization , it is often referred to informally as Bio-Coal given it's similarities to Bituminous Coal / Sub-Bituminous Coal ( Lignite / Brown Coal )
- Wood Preservation by Carbonization
- Pelletized biomass and Wood Chips
- Kon-Tiki Kiln and Biochar
- The Wikipedia Page on Torrefaction
- An Article by " The Coalition for Sustainable Rail " titled "Torrefied Biomass"
- An Article in Biomass Magazine Titled "Why Hasn’t Torrefaction Taken Off?" (Essentially an advertisement for " Advanced Torrefaction Systems LLC " , but interesting nonetheless)
- A 2021 Article in Frontiers in Energy Research: Bioenergy and Biofuels Titled "Torrefied Biomass and Where Is the Sector Currently Standing in Terms of Research, Technology Development, and Implementation"