# Basic Calculations

Calulations are importance for reasons of determining performance. They are also used in product literature to show useful product specifications.

Scaling Calculations are calculations that also consider scalability. These calculations include all relevant physical, mechanical, fluid, electrical, chemical, thermal, static, dynamic, aerodynamic, acoustic, optical, hydrological, nuclear, structural, and other properties that allow a machine to be effective for a particular purpose. Scalability is emphasized because a single design should be adaptable to different scales of operation via Intensive and Extensive Scalability. Calculations include both parameters and calculations based on these parameters.

The typical calculations for consideration are:

- Motor Torque based on power
- Basic force, torque, stress limit calculations
- Center of Mass + Weight
- Range of Motion Design calculations
- CAE analysis for structural failure, fatigue, deformation, crash testing, abrasion, thermal properties, and others
- Cost
- Beam deflection
- Expected lifetime
- Basics Statics calculations according to Basic Statics Calculations Procedure
- Expected maintenance cost according to Maintenance Cost Template
- Performance/power/speed/lifetime/lift/etc.
- Precision calculations - what precision of motion is achieved in devices
- Tolerancing requirements
- Hydraulic fluid flow and pressure
- Basic static loads analysis of mechanical devices
- Rotation speeds
- Bending forces
- Shear strength limits
- Thermal loss calculations
- Thermal profiles - FEA
- Geometrical optics
- Torque calculations
- Rotational inertia
- EMF calculations
- Thermal mass calculations
- Combustion calculations
- Embodied energy calculations
- etc.

These calculations should be performed for all critical components of machines, even though the aim is not Value Engineering. In the case over-building of components for purposes of lifetime design, calculations are relevant for providing accurate assessment of safety factors and performance expectations independent of empirical performance data.

A list of desired calculations or data points should be produced for each machine. Note: a spreadsheet or education page should be included to give a crash course on each calculation for the benefit of a novice who has a working knowledge of secondary-level

# Protocol

- Use Calculations Template - make a copy of it.
- Embed it in a wiki page named MachineName_Calculations
- For simple calculations, take pictures of backs of envelopes, your note sheets, screencasts, etc - that show basic quantifications. These are critical to understanding performance of machines.