Nickel-Iron Battery/Research Development

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Nickel-Iron Battery
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  • The nickel/iron battery is a rechargeable electrochemical power source with certain special advantages. It has good scope for traction applications. The present state-of-art advantages, limitations, and uses of the nickel/iron battery, along with its electrochemical characteristics, are outlined in this review. Various methods available for fabricating both the negative iron and the positive nickel oxy-hydroxide (NiO·OH) electrodes, as well as the electrochemical characteristics of these electrodes, are discussed. - study this for manufacturing techniques - [1]


Patent Review whitepaper -

Battery Chemistries


  • Battery Chemistry Comparison Comparison between potential battery chemistries to see if there might be something better than nickel iron for OSE purposes. Summary: Zinc bromine may well be better, see zinc bromine pages for details.

Additional Research

Nickel Iron



Basic Material Cost Calculations

  • $4550 for 4kwhr storage, 750 lb -[2]
  • Nickel iron batteries are made from nickel and iron.
  • Nickel $8/lb. $18k usd/2200lb - [3]. Scrap costs $4/lb. [4]
  • Iron costs 10 cents/lb at commodity price - [5]
  • Weight of a 4kWhr system is 750 lb [6]
  • Nickel oxide costs $25/lb [7]
  • Nickel oxide hydroxide [8] is used in batteries. It is prepared from nickel(II) hydroxide - [9] which is in turn prepared from nickel II salts with sodium hydroxide. [10]. Nickel chloride is a common salt - $8/lb. [11]. Nasty chem appears to be involved.
  • Iron oxide is 50 cents/lb [12]
  • Graphite powder is 50 cents/lb [13]

Problem Statement: Say the battery is 20% nickel [14]. Then 150 lb of nickel would be $600 for baseline cost at scrap nickel prices. Except the process relies on Nickel Oxide Hydroxide - not the same thing. So we need to trace the manufacturing process down to nickel oxide hydroxide sourcing. As well as how much nickel oxide hydroxide is actually used per battery.

About 2M tons of nickel are produced per year. This determines the number of batteries that can be produced.


Variables and Formulas

Design Proposals

10 cell with flat plates 10 cell 3d printed


  • Quoted $200 each on 2/5/18 for 400A, 1.2V battery from ZhuHai CIYI Battery Co.,Ltd, battery model CYNF400. Price FOB Shenzhen. But just look at the discharge cycles - 62 years at 50% DoD if daily discharge. $400/kWh. Price for 10 batteries will be + $280 for shipping to Kansas City.


  • Another quote from Seawill Technology Co. is TN800 - 1.2V -800Ah - 57.5kg - $349 each, so 40 are a $13960 total, $710 shipping to KC


Due to people's attempts to edit things on the wiki that were started but never finished, some valuable information has been lost from the nickel iron project in recent revisions of some wiki pages. In particular, if you are interested in the nickel iron project, I have a collection of high quality documents from the peer reviewed literature that will be quite helpful. Email me at and I will send you the documents though. Edit: here is the file you can download with all the docs The service is supposed to host it in perpetuity but we'll see.

Here is a list of the document titles, and other information from the last intact copy of the page I had built for the nickel iron project before it was torn up, for more information search the titles on google scholar.

See Also

Ongoing Research

  • Westinghouse , 500 cycles, 80%DOD tests with new designs - [15]

Useful Links

  • Example of DIY build - [18]
  • Stanford fast NiFe battery - [20]. It's useful to contact the researchers
  • Nuts and Volts article on the NiFe Battery - [21]
  • Edison Battery improvements - [22]
  • Patent - nickel oxide hydroxide electrodes - [23]
  • Good discussion on OSE Workshops FB page - [24]
  • Battery University: [25]

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